Type 1 Diabetes
The energy need of our body are provided via carbohydrates, proteins and fats which are the main nutrients in our food. The most important of these nutrients, which are divided into the smallest parts to be absorbed; is a simple sugar called glucose. Glucose is an important energy source of all organs of the body, especially the brain. Cells use the glucose needed by the hormone secreted by the pancreas gland behind the stomach. If this hormone, which is known as insulin, cannot be made in the body, the foods taken cannot be used as energy. Diabetes caused by absolute deficiency of insulin hormone is called Type 1 diabetes. As can be seen at any age, it often begins in childhood and youth. It is therefore also called juvenile diabetes. In our country, 10% of diabetics, which are thought to be over 4 million people, is about 400 thousand people with this type of diabetes.
THE INFORMATION ABOUT TYPE 1 DIABETES WE NEED TO KNOW
Type 1 diabetes is the condition that occurs when your immune system destroys cells called beta cells in the pancreas. It is a disease that should be treated during the whole life after the start of type 1 diabetes.
Professor Dr. Alper Çelik gave the following information about the causes of Type 1 diabetes, how to deal with it and how to understand its symptoms:
Blur or lack of vision and vision problems
Fatigue and exhaustion
Increased sense of hunger and thirst
Dehydration (fluid loss):
We go to toilet more often when there is more sugar in our blood. Our body wants to throw it. Large amounts of water is threw via urine, which causes the body to remain dehydrated.
Weight loss although there is no obvious cause:
While the glucose is excreted from the body, calories go with it. Therefore, people with high blood sugar lose weight. Dehydration (fluid loss) also plays a role in this. Most of the baseline tests indicate whether or not they have diabetes, but do not determine which type of diabetes. Doctors look at clinical and laboratory results to differentiate between two types of diabetes. Although there are exceptions, patients with Type 1 diabetes tend to be younger and weaker, and Type 2 diabetes patients are older and overweight.
After the diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes, the cell islets responsible for insulin secretion will continue to secrete hormones for a while before they slow down. During this time a person will need to take a low dose of insulin to keep the blood glucose level at a healthy level. This phase is called the honeymoon phase.
This phase may lead to a false misconception that Type 1 diabetes is progressing well. While the honeymoon phase shows signs of improvement, it will require close monitoring and regular adjustment of the insulin dose. Adherence to the recommended treatment plan is very important in the honeymoon phase.
HOW IS DIAGNOSED?
If your doctor thinks you have Type 1 diabetes, he or she will check the blood sugar level. If there is not enough insulin, urine may be required for urine-induced glucose or body-generated chemicals.
IF NOT TREATED
If the person cannot manage these symptoms, a number of dangerous complications may occur.
Excessive sugar leads to weakening of the retinal wall, which is the region that distinguishes light and colors. As the retinopathy progresses, the thin blood vessels behind the eye stretch and break, resulting in visual problems. Among the reasons leading to blindness among working-age adults are diabetes. The eye problem occurs in 80 percent of people with Type 1 diabetes for more than 15 years. It is rare before puberty, but it does not matter how long you have been sick. In order to prevent this and maintain eye health, keep blood sugar, blood pressure, cholesterol and trigiserid (the most common type of fat in the body) in good control.
High blood sugar weakens the circulation, damaging the nerves in the hands and feet, causing abnormal sensitization, such as burning, tingling or pain. Diabetes also reduces the body's ability to heal small cuts and wounds, leading to more permanent damage that the person cannot immediately recognize.
Diabetic nephropathy or diabetic kidney disease:
The kidneys filter the glucose in the blood. Excessive glucose causes the kidneys to work excessively and the emergence of renal failure, which leads to the need for dialysis. 20 to 30 percent of people with type 1 diabetes experience nephropathy. The risk of over time is increasing. Diabetes occurs 15 to 25 years after the onset. It can lead to more serious diseases such as renal failure.
Damage to the body:
Over time, the high level of glucose in the blood destroys nerves, eyes, kidneys and capillaries in the heart. It leads to hardening of the arteries or arteriosclerosis, leading to heart attack or paralysis.
Diabetes causes a series of anomalies that interfere with cardiac and vascular functions, including heart attack, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. As a consequence of the weakening of circulation, diabetes causes an increased risk of amputation.
Poor blood circulation and nerve damage:
Damaged nerves and hardened vessels lead to a decrease in internal sensitivity and to a weakening of blood flow to the feet. This increases the risk of injury and causes difficulties in healing open wounds and injuries. Nerve damage causes digestive problems such as vomiting, nausea and diarrhea.
Gum Disease or Recession:
Type 1 diabetes increases the risk of gum recession and tooth loss. This means that patients with Type 1 diabetes should pay great attention to dental health.
Diabetes has a very close relationship with depression.
HOW TO TREAT?
There is no way to prevent type 1 diabetes!
Patients with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin several times a day as the body no longer produces this hormone. People with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin for the rest of their lives. You can face life-threatening situations if you do not keep your type 1 diabetes in good control. Many people with type 1 diabetes have a long and healthy life. The key to good health is to keep the blood sugar level within the limits given by the doctor.
CHANGES IN LIFE
Exercise is important in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. But this is not just a simple thing to run. You must balance your insulin dose, what you eat, and any activity, whether at home or outdoors. First check your blood sugar and see how it affects you after an activity. Some things carry your sugar level up and some don't. A snack of insulin or carbohydrate will help to prevent your sugar from falling too low. If you know the role that carbohydrates, fats and proteins play, you can create a healthy eating plan that will help keep your sugar level at the required level. A dietitian can help you with that.
Why does Type 1 Diabetic Patients not benefit from Metabolic surgery?
Metabolic surgery applications for patients with Type 2 diabetes provide the insulin, that is in their body but not used; to be used. In patients with Type 1 diabetes, there is no insulin or no activity even in very small amounts. Therefore, they do not benefit from the metabolic surgery method.